Antibiotics, Their Uses, Types, Resistance, And All The Details

Bacterial fighters

Sanjeyan N

9 months ago|2 min read


Antibiotics are antibiotics that are prescribed to treat bacterial diseases in people. They work by either killing bacteria or making it difficult for bacteria to grow and multiply.


Antibiotics can be administered in different ways:

  • Alternatively (by mouth). This could be in the form of pills, capsules, or liquids.
  • Topically. This could be a cream, spray, or ointment applied to your skin.
  • Eye ointment, eye drops, or ear drops could also be used.
  • Intravenously or via injection (I.V). This is typically reserved for more serious infections.

How do antibiotics function?

There are various antibiotics that work in one of two ways:

Bactericidal antibiotics, such as penicillin, are used to kill bacteria. These drugs typically interfere with either the formation of the bacterial cell wall or the contents of the cell. Bacteriostatic agents prevent bacteria from multiplying.

Adverse effects

Antibiotics are frequently associated with the following side effects:

Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, rash, upset stomach caused by certain antibiotics or long-term use, fungal infections of the mouth, digestive tract, and vagina

How to use Antibiotics?

People should not stop taking antibiotics in the middle of a course. If they are unsure, they can consult their doctor. Antibiotics are typically taken orally. Doctors, on the other hand, can administer them via injection or directly to the infected area of the body. Most antibiotics begin working against infection within a few hours. Complete the whole course of treatment to avoid a return of the infection.

Stopping the medication before the course is complete increases the risk of the bacteria becoming resistant to future treatments. Those who survive will have had some exposure to the antibiotic and may develop resistance to it as a result. Even if symptoms improve, an individual must finish the antibiotic treatment course.

Some antibiotics should not be taken with specific foods or beverages. Others should be taken on an empty stomach, roughly an hour before or two hours after meals. The drug will only work if you follow the directions exactly. Alcohol should not be consumed by people who are taking metronidazole. When using tetracyclines, avoid dairy items as they may interfere with the medication's absorption.

Resistance to Antibiotics

Bacteria, like all living things, evolve over time in response to their surroundings. Antibiotics are continually exposed to microorganisms as a result of their extensive usage and misuse. When bacteria are treated to antibiotics, many die, but some acquire resistance to the medications' effects.

Classification of Antibiotics


The following are penicillins:

  • Amoxicillin
  • Ampicillin
  • Carbenicillin
  • Dicloxacillin
  • Nafcillin
  • Oxacillin
  • Penicillin G
  • Penicillin V
  • Ticarcillin
  • Aminoglycosides

The following aminoglycosides are found in aminoglycosides:

  • Amikacin
  • Gentamicin
  • Kanamycin
  • Neomycin
  • Plazomicin
  • Streptomycin
  • Tobramycin


The following are examples of carbapenems:

  • Doripenem \sErtapenem
  • Imipenem
  • Meropenem


First Generation

  • Cefadroxil
  • Cefazolin


  • cephalexin
  • Cefaclor
  • Cefotetan
  • Cefoxitin
  • Cefprozil
  • Cefuroxime

Third generation

  • Cefdinir
  • Cefixime
  • Cefotaxime
  • Cefpodoxime
  • Ceftazidime
  • Ceftibuten
  • Ceftriaxone

4th generation

  • Cefepime

5th generation

  • cefepime
  • Ceftaroline


The following are fluoroquinolones:

  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Delafloxacin
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Levofloxacin
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Norfloxacin
  • Ofloxacin


Antibiotics known as polypeptides are used to treat a variety of illnesses.

Polypeptides are made up of the following:

  • Bacitracin Colistin
  • Polymyxin B is a kind of polymyxin.


The following are examples of sulfonamides:

  • Mafenide
  • Sulfacetamide
  • Sulfadiazine
  • Sulfadoxine
  • Sulfamethizole
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Sulfanilamide
  • Sulfasalazine
  • Sulfisoxazole


The following are examples of tetracyclines:

  • Doxycycline
  • Eravacycline
  • Minocycline
  • Omadacycline
  • Tetracycline


Sanjeyan N




Read More