Vision Disorder is another name for eye disease. A vision disorder is a condition that impairs one's ability to see. Eye disease is not the same as a vision disorder. Although many vision disorders have an immediate cause in the eye, numerous other causes may occur at other points along the optic pathway.
The WHO estimated in 2004 that 314 million people worldwide are vision-impaired (from all causes), with 45 million of them blind. Because mortality causes take precedence, vision disorders are rarely targeted by public health initiatives.
They can, however, have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, affecting performance at school and work if not addressed. A list of eye diseases is provided below.
1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration
AMD is estimated to affect up to 16 million people in the United States. In people over the age of 60, it is the leading cause of blindness. The macula, or central part of the retina, is affected by AMD.
The macula is the part of the eye that gives us our sharpest vision, which we use for reading, driving, and other activities that require fine, sharp, or straight-ahead vision. Changes in the macula caused by AMD are typically gradual, but in some cases, vision loss is faster and more noticeable.
AMD is classified into two types:
Dry macular degeneration affects approximately 90% of those diagnosed with AMD. This condition develops when the macula's tissues begin to thin and age. Dry AMD is also associated with drusen, which are tiny yellow deposits that form beneath the retina.
Wet macular degeneration is caused by the formation of delicate, abnormal blood vessels beneath the retina. These delicate vessels leak blood and fluid beneath the retina, causing it to distort or scar. This is the cause of blurred vision in people with wet AMD. Wet AMD progresses much more quickly than dry AMD, with far more serious consequences—possibly including complete vision loss in the center.
The eye's natural crystalline lens allows us to focus on people and objects at various distances. Our lenses stiffen and harden as we age, and without their youthful suppleness, they lose their ability to focus, causing vision problems. This condition is known as presbyopia, and it is a natural result of aging for the majority of people.
As we age, changes to the natural crystalline lens can lead to the development of cataracts or a loss of lens clarity. The eye can't focus light properly because the lens is no longer as flexible or clear as it once was.
Glaucoma develops when a buildup of fluid in the eye causes pressure, which damages the optic nerve. The optic nerve is in charge of transmitting information from your eyes to your brain, and damage to it can result in severe vision loss and, in the worst-case scenario, blindness.
Glaucoma, which affects approximately 3 million people in the United States, is a leading cause of preventable blindness. A comprehensive eye exam will include glaucoma testing, so make an appointment with your eye care professional regularly.
There are several different types of glaucoma:
- Chronic open-angle glaucoma
- Acute closed-angle glaucoma
- Secondary Glaucoma
- Normal-tension glaucoma
Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye's three layers. It could be either infectious or noninfectious. It is treatable; however, if not treated properly, it can lead to other complications such as glaucoma, cataracts, optic nerve damage, retinal detachment, and severe vision loss.
The uvea is a fibrous and vascularized layer that protects the eye while also allowing for nutrient and gas exchange. It is divided into three sections: the iris, the ciliary body, and the choroid. Uveitis occurs when any part of the uvea becomes inflamed. There are various types of uveitis, each of which affects a different part of the uvea.
5. CMV retinitis
CMV retinitis is an infection that affects the light-sensing cells in the retina. It is a serious disease that should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible because it can cause vision loss and, in the worst-case scenario, blindness.
CMV is an abbreviation for cytomegalovirus. This virus is a common source of infection in humans and, in most cases, remains dormant in the body without causing symptoms.
While most people's immune systems can fight it off, those with weakened immune systems, such as newborns, the elderly, chemotherapy patients, and organ transplant recipients, are vulnerable to its effects. It is less common in people with HIV or AIDS who use antiretroviral therapy, but it is still a risk.
6. Colour Blindness
Color blindness is a hereditary condition caused by a difference in how one or more of the light-sensitive cells in the retina of the eye respond to different colors.
Cone cells detect light wavelengths and allow the retina to distinguish between colors. Color blindness can result from a difference in sensitivity in one or more cones.
7. Amblyopia (Lay Eye)
Amblyopia is a condition in which only one eye has poor vision. It occurs when there is a breakdown in the way the brain and the eye work together, and the brain is unable to recognize sight from one eye. Over time, the brain becomes increasingly reliant on the other, stronger eye, while vision in the weaker eye deteriorates.
Because the stronger eye works better, it is referred to as "lazy eye." People with amblyopia, on the other hand, are not lazy, and they have no control over how their eyes work.
Amblyopia is the most common cause of vision loss in children, and it develops during childhood. The good news is that early treatment is effective and often prevents long-term vision problems.
8. Diabetic Retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy is an eye condition that can lead to vision loss and blindness in diabetics. If you have diabetes, you should have a thorough dilated eye exam at least once a year.
Diabetic retinopathy may not present any symptoms at first, but detecting it early can help you protect your vision. Staying physically active, eating a healthy diet, and taking your diabetes medication can all help you avoid or delay vision loss.
9. Dry Eye
Dry eye occurs when your eyes do not produce enough tears to keep your eyes moist, or when your tears do not function properly. This can make your eyes feel irritated and, in some cases, cause vision problems.
Dry eyes are common, affecting millions of Americans each year. The good news is that if you suffer from dry eyes, there are numerous things you can do to keep your eyes healthy and comfortable.
10. Pink Eye
Swelling and redness on the inside of your eyelids and the white part of your eye characterize pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis. Itching and pain may also occur in your eye.
Pink eye is extremely common, and some strains spread quickly. Washing your hands frequently and not sharing items like pillowcases, towels, or makeup can help you avoid spreading it to others.
Some forms of pink eye resolve on their own. If your case is mild, you can relieve your symptoms at home with a cold compress and over-the-counter (non-prescription) eye drops. Other types of pink eye may necessitate medical attention.
This article contains information on a variety of eye diseases. This will provide information on commonly occurring eye diseases.
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